## Special Relativity: Physics at the Speed of Light

Setting the Stage

You wake up, and your mind clears. Yes, you are touring on the inter-stellar freighter Hyperion, outbound to mine anti-rely from a galactic vortex. The computerized structures have simply revived you from suspended animation. Your assignment – carry out periodic ship protection.

Climbing out of your hibernation chamber, you punch up system reputation. All structures read nominal, no troubles. That is good. Your deliver extends 30 kilometers. Just appearing habitual protection exhausts the thoughts and body; you don’t want any more work.

You contemplate the task of the freighter. The Hyperion, and its 3 sister ships, fly in staggered missions to harvest strength, in the form of anti-be counted. Each trip collects 1,000,000 terawatt-hours, enough to assist the 35 billion human and sentient robots in the sun gadget for a full year.

Looking up at the scanner display screen, you see the mid-flight area buoy station approximately a light-hour ahead. The station contains 4 buoys, configured in a square, 30 kilometers on a side. A collection of eleven stations maintains your ship on course at some stage in its two year travel out from Earth.

You check the freighter’s pace relative to the buoys – approximately 50 percent of the velocity of light, however constant, i.E. No acceleration or deceleration. That makes experience – at mid-flight, the freighter has entered a transition phase among acceleration and deceleration.

The Theory of Relativity

Either through planned have a look at, or standard media insurance, you in all likelihood have heard of the Theory of Relativity, the master piece of Albert Einstein. Einstein constructed his theory in levels. The first, Special Relativity, included non-accelerating frames of reference, and the second, General Relativity, dealt with accelerating and gravity-bound frames of reference.

Special Relativity gave us the well-known E=MC squared equation, and covers the physics of objects drawing close the velocity of mild. General Relativity helped uncover the opportunity of black holes, and offers the physics of gadgets in gravity fields or undergoing acceleration.

Here we can explore Special Relativity, the use of our hypothetical deliver Hyperion. The freighter’s velocity, a widespread fraction of that of mild, dictates we appoint Special Relativity. Calculations primarily based at the laws of motion at ordinary speeds, as an instance those of planes and automobiles, could produce wrong consequences.

Importantly, even though, our freighter is neither accelerating nor slowing and in addition has traveled sufficiently into deep space that gravity has faded to insignificant. The concerns of General Relativity therefore do now not enter right here.

Waves, and Light in a Vacuum

Special Relativity starts with the essential, foundational announcement that all observers, no matter their movement, will measure the rate of light as the identical. Whether moving at one hundred kilometers an hour, or 1,000,000 kilometers an hour, or 1000000000 kilometers an hour, all observers will measure the rate of mild as 1.08 billion kilometers an hour.

A caveat is that the observer now not be accelerating, and not be under a robust gravitational discipline.

Even with that caveat, why is this example? Why doesn’t the velocity of the observer impact the measured speed of light? If humans throw a baseball, one in a shifting bullet teach, while the opposite stands at the ground, the motion of the bullet teach adds to the velocity of the throw ball.

So shouldn’t the speed of the space ship add to the velocity of mild? You could think so. But not like baseballs, mild velocity stays consistent regardless of the rate of the observer.

Why?

Let’s reflect onconsideration on waves. Most waves, be they sound waves, water waves, the waves within the plucked string of a violin, or surprise waves travelling through stable earth, encompass movement thru a medium. Sound waves consist of transferring air molecules, water waves encompass shifting packets of water, waves in a string consist of motion of the string, and shock waves include vibrations in rocks and soil.

In evaluation, stark assessment, light waves do not consist of the motion of any underlying substrate. Light tour does no longer want any helping medium for transmission.

In that lies the important thing distinction.

Let’s paintings thought that within the context of the inter-stellar freighter. You upward thrust from suspended animation. Acceleration has stopped. In this case, no buoys exist near-via.

How do you already know you are transferring? How do you even define moving? Since you live in deep space, and you are away from the buoys, no gadgets exist close to-through towards which to degree your speed. And the vacuum offers no reference point.

Einstein, and others, idea about this. They possessed Maxwell’s laws of electromagnetism, legal guidelines which gave, from first precept, the rate of light in a vacuum. Now if no reference point exists in a vacuum towards which to measure the rate of a physical object, should any (non-elevated) motion be a privileged motion? Would there be a unique motion (aka speed) at which the observer receives the “true” velocity of light, at the same time as different observer’s transferring at a exclusive pace would get a velocity of light impacted by means of that observer’s motion.

Physicists, Einstein specially, concluded no. If a privileged reference frame exists, then observers at the non-privileged pace could locate mild violates Maxwell’s laws. And Maxwell’s laws stood as so sound that rather than amend the ones legal guidelines, physicists set a brand new assumption – relative speed cannot alternate the speed of light.

Ahh, you are saying. You see a manner to decide whether or not the Hyperion is transferring. Just compare its speed to the buoys; they’re desk bound, right? Really? Would they no longer be shifting relative to the middle of our galaxy? Doesn’t our galaxy pass relative to different galaxies?

So who or what isn’t shifting here? In truth, if we don’t forget the complete universe, we cannot tell what “real” speeds items own, best their speed relative to other objects.

If no reference factor presents a fixed frame, and if we can simplest determine relative speed, Maxwell’s legal guidelines, and honestly the character of the universe, dictate all observers measure light as having the equal speed.

Contraction of Time

If the rate of light stays consistent, what varies to allow that? And some thing should range. If I am transferring relative to you at close to the speed of light (bear in mind, we CAN inform speed relative to each other; we are able to NOT tell absolute speed against a few universally constant reference) and we degree the equal light pulse, one of use could seem to be catching as much as the mild pulse.

So a few twist in size need to exist.

Let’s move returned our freighter. Imagine the Hyperion travels proper to left, with appreciate to the buoys. As noted, the buoys form a square 30 kilometers on each side (as measured at rest with admire to the buoys).

As the Hyperion enters the buoy configuration, its front cease cuts an imaginary line among the proper buoys. It enters at a right perspective to this imaginary line, but notably off middle, only a few hundred meters from one proper buoy, almost 30 kilometers from the alternative right buoy.

Just as the front of the freighter cuts the line, the near proper buoy fires a mild pulse proper throughout the the front of the freighter, to the second right buoy, 30 kilometers away.

The light travels out, hits the second right buoy, and bounces again to the primary proper buoy, a spherical ride of 60 kilometers. Given mild travels three hundred thousand kilometers a second, rounded, or zero.Three kilometers in a micro-2d (one millionth of a 2nd), the spherical ride of the light pulse consumes 2 hundred micro-seconds. That outcomes from dividing the 60 kilometer spherical trip with the aid of zero.3 kilometers in keeping with micro-2nd.

That calculation works, for an observer desk bound at the buoy. It does not be just right for you at the Hyperion. Why? As the light travels to the second proper buoy and again, the Hyperion actions. In truth, the Hyperion’s velocity relative to the buoys is such that the back of the freighter arrives at the primary proper buoy whilst the light pulse returns.

From our vantage factor, at the freighter, how some distance did the light tour? First, we recognise the mild traveled as though alongside a triangle, from the front of the deliver, out to the second proper buoy and lower back to the lower back of the deliver. How big a triangle? The a long way proper buoys sits 30 kilometers from the primary right buoy, so the triangle extends 30 kilometers excessive, i.E. Out to the second proper buoy. The base of the triangle additionally extends 30 kilometers – the duration of the ship. Again, permit’s photograph the light tour. In the Hyperion’s reference body, the mild passes the the front of the deliver, hits the second proper buoy, and arrives lower back in the back of the freighter.

Some geometry (Pythagorean theory) indicates that a triangle 30 excessive and 30 at the bottom will degree 33.5 alongside each of the slanted facets. We get this by way of splitting the triangle down the middle, giving two proper triangles 15 by 30. Squaring then summing the 15 and 30 offers 1125 and the rectangular root of that offers 33.5.

In our reference frame then, the light travels sixty seven kilometers, i.E. Alongside each the slated aspects of the triangle. At zero.Three kilometers consistent with micro-2d, we degree the tour time of the mild pulse at simply over 223 micro-seconds.

Remember, our observer desk bound on the buoy measured the time journey at two hundred micro-seconds.

This exhibits a first twist in measurements. To maintain the rate of mild constant for all observers, clocks shifting relative to each different will degree, should measure, the equal occasion as taking exceptional quantities of time. In specific, to us on the Hyperion, the clock on the buoys is shifting, and that clock measured a shorter time. Thus, clocks moving relative to a stationary clock tick slower.

Again, that is the twist. Clocks shifting relative to an observer tick slower than clocks stationary with recognize to that observer.

But wait. What about an observer on the buoy. Would they not say they’re stationary? They could conclude stationary clocks tick slower.

We have a diffused difference. We can synchronize clocks at rest relative to us. Thus we will use two clocks, one at the back of the Hyperion and the alternative on the the front, to measure the 223 micro-2d journey time of the mild beam. We can’t synchronize, or count on to be synchronized, moving clocks. Thus, to evaluate the travel time of the mild in shifting verses stationary reference frames, we ought to degree the event in the transferring reference frame with the identical clock.

And to observers at the buoy, the Hyperion changed into shifting, and at the Hyperion the occasion changed into measured on unique clocks. Given that, an observer at the buoys cannot use our two measurements to conclude which clocks tick slower.

Uncoupling of Clocks

This uncoupling of clock speeds, this phenomenon that clocks shifting relative to us run slower, creates a 2nd twist: clocks shifting relative to us become uncoupled from our time.

Let’s step thru this.

The Hyperion completes its freight run, and once again domestic inside the sun gadget, the ship undergoes engine enhancements. It now can now attain two-thirds the rate of mild at mid-flight. This higher velocity in addition widens the variations in measured instances. In our instance above, at about half of the rate of mild, the transferring reference body measured an event at 89% of our dimension (two hundred over 223). At two-0.33 the speed of mild, this slowing, this time dilation, expands to seventy five%. An event lasting 2 hundred micro-seconds measured on a shifting clock will degree 267 micro-seconds on a clock next to us at the freighter.

We reach mid-flight. As we bypass the proper buoy, we study its clock. For ease of contrast, we won’t cope with hours and mins and seconds, but rather just the position of a hand on a micro-2d clock.

As the the front of the Hyperion passes the buoy, the buoy clock reads fifty six micro-seconds earlier than 0. Ours reads 75 micro-seconds earlier than zero. The buoy clock as a consequence now reads slightly beforehand of ours.

Now consider, we suppose we’re moving. However, from our attitude, the buoy clock moves relative to us, whilst clocks on our freighter stand desk bound relative to us. So the buoy clocks are the transferring clocks, and thus the clocks that run slower.

With the Hyperion at thirds of the rate of light relative to the buoy, the buoy travels beyond us at 0.2 kilometers according to micro-second (velocity of light is 0.3 kilometers in line with micro-2d). Thus by way of our clocks, the buoy travels from the the front of the freighter to the midpoint calculator in seventy five micro-seconds (15 kilometers divided through 0.2 kilometers in keeping with micro-2d). The freighter clocks are synchronized (a complex method, but feasible), and consequently we see the micro-second hand at 0 micro-seconds on our clock.

What can we see on the buoy? We realize its clocks run slower. How an awful lot slower? By a “beta” issue of the rectangular root of (one minus the velocity squared). This beta aspect falls proper out of the Pythagorean math above, but the details, for this newsletter, are not crucial. Simple take into account the key attributes, i.E. A shifting clock runs slower and that an equation – one tied to the (distinctly) easy Pythagorean Theorem – exists to calculate how tons slower.

The beta factor for two thirds the speed of light equates to just about 75%. Thus, if our clocks advanced seventy five micro-seconds because the buoy traveled from the front to mid-section, the buoy clocks advanced seventy five% of seventy five or 56 micro-seconds. The buoy clock examine fifty six micro-seconds before zero whilst that clock exceeded the the front of the Hyperion, so it now reads zero.

The buoy now travels farther and passes the back of the Hyperion. That is any other 15 kilometers. Our clocks increase to 75 micro-seconds, even as the buoy clock movements up to handiest 56 micro-seconds.

This progression reveals a key phenomenon – not most effective do moving clocks tick slow, those clocks study distinct times. At a few points, the ones moving clocks study an earlier time than clocks desk bound to us, and at instances, they read a time later than clocks desk bound to us.

We accordingly see moving items in what we would don’t forget our beyond or destiny. Very spooky.

Do we’ve some sort of imaginative and prescient into the destiny then? Could we by hook or by crook gather data about the shifting reference body, and enlighten them on what’s going to come? Or have them enlighten us?

No. We might see the buoy at a time in our destiny (as the buoy passes the the front of the Hyperion, its clock reads 56 micro-seconds before zero, or19 micro-seconds in advance than our clock). We however do no longer also concurrently see the buoy at our gift, i.E. 75 micro-seconds before 0. To cheat time, to inform the buoy approximately its future, we need to take data from one point in time and speak that data to every other point in time.

And that never takes place. We see the buoy in our future, then in our present, after which our beyond, however as that takes place we do no longer see the buoy at another factor in time. We for this reason can not talk any future knowledge to the buoy.

Length Contraction

Let’s summarize quick. The legal guidelines of nature dictate all observers, regardless of motion, will degree light on the equal pace. That dictate implies and requires that clocks transferring relative to an observer will tick slower, and in addition implies and calls for that time registering on moving clocks can be uncoupled from time registering on clocks stationary to us.

Do we’ve got greater implications? Yes.

The constancy of light pace requires and dictates that transferring items contract in length.

As the buoys pace by means of, at a selected immediately, the Hyperion have to align with the buoys. Our 30 kilometer duration equals the 30 kilometer buoy separation. Thus, whilst our ship aligns itself facet-with the aid of-facet with the buoys, observers at the front and back of the Hyperion ought to see the buoys.

But this doesn’t take place. Our observers at the Hyperion don’t see the buoys while the mid-ship factor of the Hyperion aligns with the midpoint among the buoys. In truth, at this alignment, the Hyperion observers should appearance towards mid-ship to peer the buoys. At alignment of mid-deliver of the Hyperion to midpoint between the buoys, every of the buoys lies over 3 kilometers short of the ends of the Hyperion.

What happened? Why do we now not degree the buoys 30 kilometers apart? What brought about the 30 kilometer separation to decrease almost 7 kilometers?

What happened, what we have encountered, represents every other ramification of the fidelity of the velocity of mild, especially that we degree a transferring object as shorter than when we measure the item at relaxation.

How does that arise? Let’s discover that by way of assuming that we had measured the moving buoys as nonetheless 30 kilometers apart, then through doing some math with that assumption. We will find that we can run right into a contradiction. That will indicate our assumption cannot be proper.

Let’s run the calculations. As noted above, we can expect we measure the buoys 30 kilometers apart. The buoys, underneath this assumption, will align with the ends of the Hyperion. For our experiment, at that on the spot of alignment, we fire light beams from the ends of the Hyperion in the direction of the middle.

To preserve matters immediately, we need distance markers at the Hyperion, and on the buoys. We will label the two ends of the Hyperion plus 15 kilometers (the right end) and minus 15 kilometers (the left end), and by means of extension, the middle of the ship will be zero. The Hyperion clocks will study zero micro-seconds whilst mild beams start.

We may even mark the buoys as being at minus 15 and plus 15 kilometers, and with the aid of extension, a factor equidistant among the buoys as distance 0. A clock will be placed at the buoy 0 point. That clock will study zero micro-seconds whilst the mid-deliver at the Hyperion aligns with the midpoint of the buoys.

Now let’s observe the mild beams. They of direction race in the direction of each different till they converge. On the Hyperion, this convergence occurs right within the center, at distance marker 0. Each mild beam travels 15 kilometers. Given mild travels at 0.3 kilometers according to micro-2d, the light beams converge in 50 micro-seconds.

The buoys pass beyond the Hyperion at thirds the rate of light, or 0.2 kilometers in line with micro-2d. In the 50 micro-seconds for the mild to converge, the buoys move. How a good deal? We multiply their velocity of zero.2 kilometer according to micro-second instances the 50 micro-seconds, to get 10 kilometers. With this 10 kilometer shift, when the light beams converge, our zero factor aligns with their minus 10 kilometer factor. Remember, if the Hyperion travels right-to-left, then on the Hyperion, we view the buoys at travelling left-to-proper.

On the Hyperion, we see the light beams each tour the identical distance. What approximately observers in the moving body, i.E. Shifting with the buoys?

They see the light beams tour extraordinary distances.

The mild beam starting on the right, at plus 15, travels all the manner to minus 10 kilometers, in the buoy reference body. That represents a tour distance of 25 kilometers. The light beginning on the left, at minus 15, travels only five kilometers, i.E. From minus 15 kilometers to minus 10 kilometers. These unequal tour distances occur, of direction, because the buoys pass during the mild beam journey.

In the buoy body of reference, one light beam travels 20 kilometers farther than the other. For them to meet on the same time, the beam journeying the shorter distance must wait while the other mild beam covers that extra 20 kilometers. How a lot of a wait? At the 0.Three kilometers consistent with micro-2nd this is 66.7 micro-seconds.

Let’s ponder this. In our desk bound reference body, the mild beams every begin at time equal 0 on clocks on both ends of the Hyperion. For the buoys although, light leaves one buoy, the buoy at distance plus 15, sixty six.7 micro-seconds earlier, than the only that leaves the buoy at distance minus 15.

At the start of this experiment, we set the clock on the mid-point between the buoys at time identical 0. By symmetry, with this 66.7 micro-2d distinction, the clock at the minus 15 point have to have read plus 33.3 micro-seconds, and the clock at the plus 15 point must have examine minus 33.3, when the mild beams left.

What approximately the meet factor, at minus 10 inside the buoy reference body? What changed into the time at the meet point inside the reference frame of the buoys, whilst the light beams left? Remember, the meet factor within the buoy body of reference is minus 10 kilometers. If the minus 15 point is 33.Three micro-seconds, the minus 10 factor is 22.2 micro-seconds.

We now pull in that clocks run slower in the moving body. At two thirds the speed of light, clocks run at seventy five% (or greater precisely seventy four.Five%) the rate of clocks in our desk bound body. Given our clocks measured 50 micro-seconds for the light tour time, the clocks on the buoys measure a mild travel time of 37.Three micro-seconds.

A bit of addition gives us the meet time in the buoy reference body. The clocks on the meet factor examine plus 22.2 micro-seconds while the mild began, and increase 37.Three micro-seconds throughout the mild travel. We for that reason have a meet time of fifty nine.Five micro-seconds in the moving reference frame, i.E. The buoy reference frame.

Now comes the contradiction.

The mild began from the minus 15 point at 33.3 micro-seconds, and arrives at the minus 10 point at 59.Five micro-seconds. Let’s call that a 26 micro-2nd journey time. The journey distance was five kilometers. The implied speed, i.E. Five kilometers divided by means of the 26 micro-2nd journey time, comes out to zero.19 kilometers per micro-2nd.

From the other stop, the light traveled 25 kilometers, in 92.8 micro-seconds (from minus 33.Three to plus fifty nine.5). The implied pace, i.E. 25 kilometers divided through the 93 micro-2d journey time, comes out to zero.27 kilometers consistent with micro-2nd.

No proper. Light travels at 0.3 kilometers in step with micro-second. When we assumed that we would degree the buoys 30 kilometers apart, and adjusted the clocks to try to suit that assumption, we did NOT get the speed of mild.

Remember significantly that every one observers have to measure the rate of light as the identical. Clock speeds, and relative time readings, or even measured distances, should adjust to make that occur.

How some distance aside DO the buoys want to be, for the buoys to align with the ends of the Hyperion? They want to be 40.2 kilometers aside. With the buoys forty.2 kilometers aside, the front and back of the Hyperion will align with the buoys, whilst the mid-ship (of the Hyperion) and the midpoint (of the buoys) align.

Amazing, nearly incomprehensible. The want for all observers to measure the identical velocity of mild dictates that we degree transferring items shorter, substantially shorter, than we might degree them at rest.

What will the buoy clocks examine, if we adopt this 40.2 kilometers spacing? When the ship and the buoys align, the left buoy clock will read plus forty four.7 micro-seconds and the proper buoy clock will read minus forty four.7 micro-seconds. Since the light beams fire when the ships and buoys align, the mild beam on the right leaves 89.Four micro-seconds before the light beam at the left, in the buoy frame of reference.

That time difference equates to the proper beam travelling 26.8 kilometers earlier than the left beam starts, as seen inside the buoy frame of reference. Both beams then tour 6.7 kilometers till they met. The 26.8 plus 6.7 two times totals to the 40.2 kilometer between the buoys.

The left beam starts offevolved at vicinity minus 20.1, at time plus forty four.7 micro-seconds, and travels 6.7 kilometers. Light desires 22.4 micro-seconds (6.7 divided by 0.3) to journey the 6.7 kilometers. Thus, the clock on the minus thirteen.Four factor (minus 20.2 kilometers plus the 6.7 kilometers the left light beam traveled) have to read 67.1 micro-seconds when the left mild beam receives there.

Does it?

By proportions, whilst the buoys and the Hyperion align, a clock on the minus 13.4 factor would study plus 44.7 minus one-6th of 89.4. One-6th of 89.Four is 14.9, and forty four.7 minus 14.Nine might be 29.Eight micro-seconds.

Remember now that the buoy clocks ought to boost 37.Three micro-seconds at some point of the journey of the mild beams. That occurs due to the fact on the Hyperion, the light beam travel requires 50 micro-seconds, and the buoy clocks must run gradual through a component of seventy five percent (or extra precisely 74.Five percentage).

Add the 29.8 and the 37.3, and we get sixty seven.1 micro-seconds. We said earlier that the clock at minus thirteen.4 kilometers ought to examine sixty seven.1 micro-seconds whilst the left mild beam arrives. And it does. A separation of the buoys via 40.2 kilometers hence aligns the clocks and distances on the buoys so they measure the right pace of light.

What Really Happens

But do transferring objects really decrease? Do the atoms of the items distort to purpose the object to shorten?

Absolutely not. Think about what we have been analyzing on the clocks. While the clocks at the Hyperion all study the equal time, the clocks in the moving reference frame all geared up different instances. Moving distances cut back because we see the unique parts of the moving item at one of a kind times. With the buoys forty.2 kilometers aside (measured at rest), we noticed the left buoy at plus 44.7 micro-seconds (in its reference frame) and the proper buoy at minus forty four.7 micro-seconds.

Let’s take a look at another manner to conceive of duration contraction, in a more down-to-Earth instance.

Picture an extended freight educate, four kilometers lengthy, moving at forty kilometers an hour. You and a fellow experimenter stand along the tracks 3 kilometers from every different. When the the front on the train passes you, you sign your accomplice. Your accomplice waits 89 seconds and takes observe of what part of the educate now passes in the front of him. What does he see? The end of the educate.

The four kilometer train healthy within the three kilometer separation between you and your fellow experimenter. That passed off due to the fact your associate looked at the educate later than you.

This is NOT exactly how fast moving items effect measurements. In our train instance, we created two distinctive instances of commentary by waiting. In the Hyperion scenario, we failed to need to attend – the near mild passing pace of the buoys created a distinction in the clock observation times.

Though no longer an specific analogy, the simplified teach instance DOES encourage how measuring the duration of some thing at two one-of-a-kind instances can distort the size. The teach example also demonstrates that we will shorten the measured length of an object with out the item physically shrinking.

While the shrinkage does not surely happen, the time stamps differences are actual. In our Hyperion instance, with the mild beams, if we went again and picked up the clocks at the buoys, those clocks would record that the mild beams we fired surely did begin 89.Four micro-seconds aside. We would study our Hyperion clocks, and our Hyperion clocks would without a doubt show that during our reference body the mild beams commenced on the same time.

Are the Clocks Smart?

How do the clocks “realize” the way to modify themselves? Do they sense the relative speeds and exercising some kind of intelligence to realign themselves?

Despite any appearances in any other case, the clocks do no longer sense any motion or carry out any changes. If you stand beside a clock, and gadgets zip via you at near the rate of mild, nothing occurs to the clock subsequent to you. It makes no adjustments, adjustments, or compensations for the sake of passing gadgets.

Rather, the geometry of space and time motive an observer to peer moving clocks ticking slower, and transferring objects measuring shorter.

If you circulate far from me, and I degree you against a ruler held in my hand, your measured peak shrinks proportional for your distance from me. Your searching smaller consequences from the smaller perspective between the light from you head and the light out of your toes as you move away. The light didn’t want to realize what to do, and the ruler didn’t modify. Rather, the geometry of our international dictates that as you pass away you will degree shorter.

Similarly, if I region lens between you and a display, I can amplify or reduce your height via changes of the lenses. The mild would not want to know how alter; the mild clearly follows the legal guidelines of physics.

So the use of distance and lens, I can make the measurement of you top alternate. I could with ease write formulas for these measurement changes.

Similarly, moving clocks study slower from the character of time. We think clocks need to “realize” a way to alter, seeing that our time-honored experience at low velocities suggests clocks run on the equal fee. But if we have been born on the Hyperion and lived our lives touring at near light speeds, the slowing of clocks due to relative movement would be as familiar to us because the bending of light beams as they tour thru lens.

All observers should degree the speed of light as the same. That characteristic of nature, that reality of the geometry of area and time, creates counter-intuitive but however actual changes in observations of time and area. Moving clocks run slower, they come to be uncoupled from our time, and any gadgets transferring with the ones clocks degree shorter in period.

David Mascone has stages in Engineering and Business. He has interests in science, philosphy and theology. His entertainment sports include sports activities, hiking, science fiction and little league umpiring. His intellectual recognition is finding consistency and synergies between the extraordinary masterpieces of human mind, such as faith, technology and art.